Logic is the systematic reasoning process we use to comprehend the relationships between facts in order to reach conclusions. Logical thinking enables students to understand what they read and what they are told and helps them see relationships, understand sequencing, and make inferences. Students with good logical-thinking skills can take new information to build upon what they already know. Outside of the classroom logical thinking can help improve social skills.
Logical reasoning comprises two opposite types of thinking: deductive and inductive. Deductive reasoning begins with a general statement. When we use deductive reasoning, we begin with a general statement. We then examine specific premises to infer a conclusion. If all the premises are true, then the reasoning will be sound. Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, uses specific observations to make a generalization. Inductive thinking may result in a correct conclusion, but it is not reliable.
Example of Deductive Thinking
Premise 1. A dog is a mammal.
Premise 2. All mammals are warm-blooded animals.
Conclusion: Dogs are warm-blooded animals.
This conclusion is valid, and because the premises are correct, it is also true. Continue reading Logic Puzzles Help Build Deductive-Reasoning Skills